Your health-care provider may also send a urine sample to the lab for culture testing see below. Read results in 10 minutes. Commercial brands measure pH in increments of 0. Some WBCs in hypotonic urine appear larger because they have absorbed water and the cytoplasmic granules exhibit Brownian movement. Avoid contamination by volatile chemicals. Urobilinogen is partially reabsorbed from the gut and excreted in the urine.
Retrieved 14 March Changes in colour after 2 minutes are of no diagnostic value. Blood may be present in the urine either in the form of intact red blood cells hematuria or as the product of red blood cell destruction, hemoglobin hemoglobinuria. Alkaline fermentation causes an ammoniacal smell, and patients with diabetic ketoacidosis produce a urine that may have a sweet or fruity odour. They usually indicate the nephrotic syndrome. For a more complete discussion of expected results and potential causes of unexpected results see the Urinalysis Technical Document. Intestinal bacteria convert the conjugated bilirubin that is excreted by the bile duct into the intestine into urobilinogen and stercobilinogen.
Two colour charts are provided that correspond to the reactions that occur with hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria and hematuria RBCs. With the aid of routine examinations early symptoms of the following four groups can be identified:. False negative results can occur with old urine samples. All products are sold and have an intended use as Dietary Supplements. They can be analyzed within minutes of urine collection in the doctor's office or in the emergency room to provide valuable information. A meta-analysis of the accuracy, June
Mucus forms colorless threads or long ribbon-like structures with undefined edges and pointed or frayed ends. Other interfering substances are washed through the mat and do not come into contact with the diazonium salt. Outdated or deteriorated dipsticks are another cause of false-negative results. First morning urine from healthy individuals will usually range from 5 to 6. Large numbers of bacteria can react to reduce nitrite to nitrogen, which will give a false negative result. The reaction of acetoacetic acid with nitroprusside results in the development of color ranging from buff pink to shades of purple. This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions.