In economics, the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is a metric that quantifies induced consumption, the concept that the increase in personal consumer spending (consumption) occurs with an increase in disposable income (income after taxes and transfers). The proportion of disposable income which individuals spend on consumption is known as propensity to consume. MPC is the proportion of additional income that an individual consumes. For example, if a household earns one extra dollar of disposable income, and the marginal propensity to consume is 0.65, then of that dollar, the household will spend 65 cents and save 35 cents. Obviously, the household cannot spend more than the extra dollar (without borrowing).
According to John Maynard Keynes, marginal propensity to consume is less than one.
Unearned income is a term coined by Henry George to refer to income gained through ownership of land and other monopoly. Today the term often refers to income received by virtue of owning property (known as property income), inheritance, pensions and payments received from public welfare. The three major forms of unearned income based on property ownership are rent, received from the ownership of natural resources; interest, received by virtue of owning financial assets; and profit, received from the ownership of capital equipment. As such, unearned income is often categorized as “passive income”.
Unearned income can be discussed from either an economic or accounting perspective, but is more commonly used in economics.
The effective marginal tax rate (EMTR) is the combined effect on a person’s earnings of income tax and the withdrawal of means testing of state welfare benefits. The EMTR is the percentage of an extra unit of income (extra dollar, euro, yen etc.) that the recipient loses due to income taxes, payroll taxes, and any decline in tax credits and welfare entitlements.
Calculating the EMTR is typically very dependent on individual circumstances and involves a consideration of welfare withdrawal rules, income tax laws, low income tax offsets, tax rebates and the individuals tax and welfare status. As such tables showing EMTRs are rarely published. The net effect however is generally a higher effective marginal rate of tax than that suggested by income tax tables.
Income inequality in the United States has increased significantly since the 1970s after several decades of stability, meaning the share of the nation’s income received by higher income households has increased. This trend is evident with income measured both before taxes (market income) as well as after taxes and transfer payments. Income inequality has fluctuated considerably since measurements began around 1915, moving in an arc between peaks in the 1920s and 2000s, with a 30-year period of relatively lower inequality between 1950–1980.
Measured for all households, U.S. income inequality is comparable to other developed countries before taxes and transfers, but is among the highest after taxes and transfers, meaning the U.S. shifts relatively less income from higher income households to lower income households. Measured for working-age households, market income inequality is comparatively high (rather than moderate) and the level of redistribution is moderate (not low). These comparisons indicate Americans shift from reliance on market income to reliance on income transfers later in life and less than households in other developed countries do.
The U.S. ranks around the 30th percentile in income inequality globally, meaning 70% of countries have a more equal income distribution. U.S. federal tax and transfer policies are progressive and therefore reduce income inequality measured after taxes and transfers. Tax and transfer policies together reduced income inequality slightly more in 2011 than in 1979.
While there is strong evidence that it has increased since the 1970s, there is active debate in the United States regarding the appropriate measurement, causes, effects and solutions to income inequality. The two major political parties have different approaches to the issue, with Democrats historically emphasizing that economic growth should result in shared prosperity (i.e., a pro-labor argument advocating income redistribution), while Republicans tend to downplay the validity or feasibility of positively influencing the issue (i.e., a pro-capital argument against redistribution).
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Extra Space Storage has been a publicly traded real estate investment trust (REIT) since 2004, and is traded on the New York Stock Exchange with the ticker symbol EXR. The company was founded in 1977 by Kenneth Woolley, who remains the chairman. Since Apr 2009, Spencer Kirk has served as the company’s CEO.
Income tax in Australia is the most important revenue stream within the Australian taxation system. Income tax is levied upon three sources of income for individual taxpayers: personal earnings (such as salary and wages), business income and capital gains.
Income received by individuals is taxed at progressive rates from 0 to 45%, plus a Medicare levy of up to 2%, while income derived by companies is taxed at a flat rate of either 30% or 27.5% depending on annual turnover. Generally, capital gains are only subject to tax at the time the gain is realised and are reduced by 50% if the asset sold to create the capital gains tax event was held for more than 1 year. Income tax is collected by the Australian Taxation Office.
In Australia the financial year runs from 1 July to 30 June of the following year. Income tax is applied to a taxpayer’s taxable income, which is calculated, in a broad sense, by applying allowable deductions against the taxpayer’s assessable income.
Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions. Eligibility is typically determined by citizenship, a means test, and either availability for the labour market or a willingness to perform community services. The primary goal of a guaranteed minimum income is to reduce poverty. If citizenship is the only requirement, the system turns into a universal basic income.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. Economic inequality sometimes refers to income inequality, wealth inequality, or the wealth gap. Economists generally focus on economic disparity in three metrics: wealth, income, and consumption. The issue of economic inequality is relevant to notions of equity, equality of outcome, and equality of opportunity.
Economic inequality varies between societies, historical periods, economic structures and systems. The term can refer to cross-sectional distribution of income or wealth at any particular period, or to changes of income and wealth over longer periods of time. There are various numerical indices for measuring economic inequality. A widely used index is the Gini coefficient, but there are also many other methods.
Research suggests that greater inequality hinders long term growth. Whereas globalization has reduced global inequality (between nations), it has increased inequality within nations.