The benefits of burning to moose, and possibly mule deer, may peak 20 to 25 years after stand-replacing fire and last less than 50 years [ ]. General observations suggest that mule deer use areas during and soon after fire e. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication. This may be due to ash deposition and resultant abundant nitrogen after spring burning. The effects of prescribed fire on quaking aspen stands and fire's resulting effect on mule deer depend, in part, upon the amount of postfire quaking aspen sprouting. Small burned areas or clearcuts may attract concentrations of mule deer and other browsing animals, to the point where quaking aspen browse is eliminated see Mule deer interactions with fuels and fire effects [ , ].
Why Buck-to-Doe Sex Ratios Matter in Your Local Deer Herd
Mule deer may also defend themselves against predators such as bobcats and coyotes [ , ]. Removal of shrubs and trees in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems is a common management practice on mule deer rangelands. In sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems, large areas have been treated mechanically, with prescribed fire, or with herbicides to try to convert them to grass-shrub or grass types [ 66 , ]. Fidelity to traditional home ranges can be so great that deer will "starve to death" rather than travel "a few kilometers" to abundant forage Dasmann and Taber cited in [ ]. In contrast, Mackie cited in [ ] concluded that males in Montana gained weight until at least 7.
The impracticality of a female utilizing an excursion to locate a specific male suggests that excursive behaviors may be an attempt to incite competition by alerting more males of the female's presence, as suggested by Cox and Le Boeuf During their 1st or 2nd year, young males typically shift from habitats used by females to those used by adult males. Approximately 50 percent of fawns born each year are bucks. According to a review, mule deer in "open, simple, and more variable habitats" tend to have larger home ranges than those in "closed, diverse, and stable environments" [ ]. In other regions, a single population may be comprised of migratory and nonmigratory individuals. High densities in midsuccession were thought to occur because of use of these forests for cover Table 2 [ 55 ].
See Great Basin shrublands for information about fire effects on mule deer in sagebrush communities. Hunting Whitetail Deer Hunting. Summer and fall use then increased 2. In north-central Utah, mule deer use of Gambel oak browse on burned and unburned sites was similar. Fawns grow rapidly, with males tending to be heavier than females. In regions with snow, winter ranges are often smaller than summer ranges. A survey of deer at check stations in found I.